Wall Failure

Shear Failure:

  • Improper sole plate anchorage.
  • Improper mailing of shear element (i.e. plywood, gypsum board, stucco).
  • Tearing of shear element.

Drag Failure:

  • Missing/inadequate top plate straps.
  • Insufficient top plate splice.
  • Undersized top plate.

Potential Damage:

  • Cracked finishes.
  • Water intrusion.
  • Ruptured plumbing and gas lines.
  • Partial or total collapse of framing.

Common Problems:

  • Grade slopes toward building.
  • Inadequate waterproof membrane.
  • No protection board.
  • No extension of waterproof membrane above grade or over footing.
  • No foundation drain.
  • No gravel or filter fabric around drain.
  • No waterproof membrane under slab.

Potential Damage:

  • Efflorescence and water stains on walls
  • Ponding against building and on basement floors.
  • Moisture migration though slabs.

The Five Basic Elements For Waterproofing Below Grade Walls:

  1. Waterproof membrane
  2. Protection board
  3. Gravel Fill
  4. Foundation Drain
  5. Filter Fabric

Recommended Solutions:

  • Slope the finish grade away from the building,
  • Install a membrane under the concrete building slab,
  • Provide a cant strip to transition the waterproof membrane at any 90 degree angle,
  • Install ultraviolet protection for the above-grade waterproofing.

Common Problems:

  • No drain installed.
  • Drain installed, but no outlet for water.
  • Drain installed without proper gravel and filter fabric – leading to clogging.
  • Drain installed too high – allowing water pressure to build up below the drain.

Potential Damage:

  • Excessive/unsightly leaning (rotation).
  • Collapse.
  • Excessive wall cracking.
  • soil/pavement buckling in front of wall.
  • soil subsidence behind wall.

Proper Solutions:

  • Install continuous drain pipe embedded in gravel and wrapped in filter cloth.
  • Drain pipe should be installed below the finish floor/grade and above the bottom of the footing.
  • There are generally two types of hold downs; the embedded strap and the anchor bolt hold down. Their function is to prevent the end of a shear wall from lifting off the foundation.

Proper Construction:

The following are the principal elements necessary for hold downs to function properly:

  • Correct size of anchor bolt and/or hold down.
  • Attached to the end stud by sufficient nailing or bolting.
  • Nut tightened sufficiently on anchor bolt.
  • Bolt holes drilled to proper size.
  • Strap or bolt properly imbedded into foundation.
  • Positioned properly at the end of the wall, adjacent to the end post.
  • Positioned at the proper distance from the edge of the foundation.

Common Problems:

  • Missing hold down.
  • Undersized hold down.
  • Improper location of hold down.
  • Improper installation of hold down.

Potential Damage:

  • Cracked finishes.
  • Water intrusion.
  • Ruptured plumbing and gas lines.
  • Partial or total collapse of the framing system.
  • Personal Injury.